Sedative Drugs

Sedation has a lot of significance in a no. of fields of life as we discussed in the previous article. Now, we have dedicated this article to enunciate the drugs and formulae used for carrying out Euthanasia and Sedation. We will discuss their chemical formulae and safe amount to be used while operating upon a patient or any other motive and when these drugs cannot be used. Let us start!

Sedative Drugs

The main Drugs employed for sedative processes are the following ones:-

  • Nembutal Sodium
  • Isoflurane
  • Diethyl ether
  • Propofol
  • Etomidate
  • Ketamine
  • Lorazepam
  • Midazolam

The main medicines used are Nembutal Sodium and Pentobarbital. We will thoroughly discuss them.

1-Nembutal Sodium:-

It is an important sedative and is widely used to retard or slow the activity of your nervous and brain system.  Its chemical name is pentobarbital



NEMBUTAL Sodium Solution (pentobarbital sodium infusion) is an aseptic solution for injection between the muscles. Every mL is composed of pentobarbital sodium 50 mg, in a vehicle of propylene glycol, 40%, liquor, 10% and water for injection, to volume. The pH is changed in accordance with roughly 9.5 with hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide.


NEMBUTAL (pentobarbital) Sodium is a short-acting barbiturate and has a chemical composition of sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1-methyl butyl) barbiturate. The structural formula is drawn as such:-


Sedative Drugs

Physical properties:-

This salt of sodium usually occurs in white color as a slightly bitter powder which is easily soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble benzene and other solvents.


Sedative Drugs

Uses of Nembutal Sodium:

  • It is used for the treatment of Insomnia.
  • As a response depressant of the patient being operated.
  • It is also used as a Preanesthetic (A drug given before activity of anesthetics).
  • It is also used in Euthanasia (assisted killing) by the doctors.
  • For relieving mental stress and tensions.

Precautions and Warnings for use of Pento-barbital Sodium:


You should prevent taking Pentobarbital when you are one or more than one conditions stated below:-

  • If you are allergic to Pentobarbital sodium and other derivatives or barbiturates like (butabarbital, phenobarbital, Luminal, Seconal, and others.
  • If you have a history of Porphyria (it is a genetic disorder that affects the nervous system and skin).
  • If you have liver disease, kidney disease, temporary or chronic pain, or addiction history to drugs like (Valium, Xanax, and Ativan).
  • It should not be used during pregnancy as it can put impact adversely the unborn baby.
  • Normal people also must avoid overdosage.



   Pentobarbital sodium side effects:

You should get emergency help if you observe signs of allergic action during the use of Pento-barbital sodium. These are some symptoms that implicate you to stop using Pentobarbital sodium.

  • If you are infected with hallucinations, confusion, and agitation.
  • If you feel weak or shallow breathing.
  • If you feel a light-headed feeling.
  • If your heart rate is slow or pulse is weak.
  • If your face, lips, tongue, or throat swells.

Dosage of Pentobarbital sodium

The dosage of barbiturates is controlled by many factors such as the patient’s age, weight, and condition.

Intramuscular Administration: 2-6 mg/kg as a single injection should not exceed 100mg.

Intravenous administration: Rate of IV injection should not exceed 50mg/min.


Isoflurane: It is also a sedative and its structural formula is the following:


     Propofol:- It also decreases the consciousness of the patient to External




Sedative Drugs


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